38Th Parallel Agreement

In 1951, the front line stabilized near the 38th parallel, and both sides began to consider an armistice. Rhee, however, called for the war to continue until Korea was united under his leadership. [57] The communist side supported a ceasefire line based on the 38th parallel, but the United Nations supported a line based on the territory held by each side, which was militarily justifiable. [58] The UN position formulated by the Americans contradicted the consensus that led to the negotiations. [59] Originally, the Americans proposed a line that ran through Pyongyang, far north of the front line. [60] The Chinese and North Koreans eventually agreed on a border on the military line of contact rather than the 38th parallel, but this disagreement led to a convoluted and lengthy negotiation process. [61] In the final days of the war, the United States proposed dividing the Korean Peninsula into two occupation zones (one American and one Soviet) with the 38th parallel as the demarcation line. The Soviets accepted their proposal and agreed to divide Korea. [2] On the ground, deadly exchanges of fire, many in the dark, continued near the 38th parallel on hills with names like Sniper`s Ridge, Punchbowl and Porkchop Hill. But neither side has gained influence. U.S. troops expressed frustration with the incessant fighting, repeating the contemptuous saying “Die for a draw.” Peace talks began in July 1951 between representatives of the Republic of Korea, the United States and the Soviet Union.

They met in a modest office building in the North Korean village of Panmunjom, near the 38th parallel. Why Korea was divided at the 38th parallel after World War II. Der 38. Latitude was chosen in 1945 by the United States and the USSR as the convenient boundary for their divided military occupation of the Korean Peninsula. Under this divided occupation, Korea quickly developed two ideologically different regimes, a socialist state in the north and a liberal state in the south. Their conflict culminated in the outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950. This lecture will feature stories of North Koreans who crossed the 38th parallel between 1945 and 1950. Why did they leave North Korea during the revolution and what did they do in South Korea? By answering these questions, this conference aims to revise the established historiography of the emergence of postcolonial Korea and the origins of the Korean War. On June 25, 1950, a strong northern tank force crossed the 38th parallel and captured Seoul four days later. A three-year war followed, during which the armed forces of the United Nations, especially those of the United States, supported South Korea. On July 27, 1953, an armistice was signed and a demilitarized zone was established along the 38th parallel. In August 1945, the two allies shared control of the Korean peninsula “just in name” (as Robinson put it).

Over the next three years (1945-48), the Soviet army and its proxies established a communist regime in the region north of the 38th or 38th parallel. South of this line, a military government was formed, directly supported by the United States. When japan`s brutal occupation came to an abrupt end after its unconditional surrender in August 1945, Soviet troops stationed in North Korea began moving south of the peninsula to take control of the country. U.S. military leaders overseeing the orderly surrender of Japanese forces in Korea had little time to reach agreements with the Soviets. Two U.S. Army colonels temporarily affiliated with the State Department were sent to Korea to find a demarcation line. They proposed occupation zones based on the model of regulation in Germany after the capitulation of 1945. The Korean armistice agreement was signed after three years of war. The two sides agreed to create a 4-kilometer-wide (2.5-mile) buffer zone between the states, known as the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). This new border, reflecting the territory held on either side at the end of the war, crossed the 38th parallel diagonally.

Rhee refused to accept the ceasefire and continued to push for the forced reunification of the country. [62] Despite attempts by both sides to reunify the country, the war continued the division of Korea and led to a permanent alliance between South Korea and the United States and a permanent American garrison in the south. [63] However, a month after Truman`s encounter with MacArthur, 260,000 Chinese soldiers surrounded UN troops, including the First Marine Division. Even worse, the temperature dropped, leading to one of the coldest winters in a hundred years. The machine guns froze. Jeep`s engines did not start. Well outnumbered, the Marines and UN troops fought to return to the 38th parallel. Months of fierce fighting followed, during which Seoul was conquered and liberated four times. In April 1951, Truman fired the popular MacArthur, plunging into the president`s polls. A joint Soviet-American commission [ko] met in 1946 and 1947 to work for a unified government, but was unable to make progress due to the growing antagonism of the Cold War and Korean opposition to trusteeship. [36] In 1946, the Soviet Union proposed Lyuh Woon-hyung as the leader of a united Korea, but this was rejected by the United States.

[20] In the meantime, the gap between the two zones has widened. The political difference between the occupying powers has led to a polarization of politics and a population transfer between North and South. [37] In May 1946, it was forbidden to cross the 38th parallel without authorization. [38] At the last meeting of the Joint Commission in September 1947, Soviet delegate Terentii Shtykov suggested that Soviet and American troops withdraw and give the Korean people the opportunity to form their own government. This was rejected by the United States. [39] When Japan`s colonial hold on Korea ended in defeat in 1945, U.S. forces invaded the south and the Soviet army took power in the north by mutual agreement, dividing the country at the 38th parallel. When discussions about the future of Korea failed in May 1946, the division was frozen. This line was the 38th parallel, whose origins as the first intranational border of modern Korea date back to the last hours of World War II, as U.S.

officials. The Ministries of War and Foreign Affairs were preparing to negotiate with the Soviet Union on how to administer Japan-occupied Korea after Japan`s surrender. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, in the middle of World War II, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek agreed that Japan should lose all the territories it had conquered by force. At the end of the conference, the three powers declared that they were “aware of the slavery of the Korean people. determined that Korea will become free and independent in due course. [7] [8] Roosevelt circulated the idea of guardianship over Korea, but received no approval from the other powers. Roosevelt raised the idea with Joseph Stalin at the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Stalin did not disagree, but advocated that the guardianship period should be short.

[6]: 187-188 [9] “They razed the earth,” Robinson says. “They destroyed all the cities.” The armistice that ended this conflict in 1953 left the peninsula divided in the same way as before, with a demilitarized zone (DMZ) that ran along roughly the 38th parallel. .